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写作技巧
时间:2013-12-09 16:54:31
 

写作的七项基本原则
一、 长短句原则
  As a creature, I eat; as a man, I read. Although one action is to meet the primary need of my body and the other is to satisfy the intellectual need of mind, they are in a way quite similar.
  强烈建议:在文章第一段(开头)用一长一短,且先长后短;在文章主体部分,要先用一个短句解释主要意思,然后在阐述几个要点的时候采用先短后长的句群形式,定会让主体部分妙笔生辉!文章结尾一般用一长一短就可以了。
二、 主题句原则
  To begin with, you must work hard at your lessons and be fully prepared before the exam(主题句). Without sufficient preparation, you can hardly expect to answer all the questions correctly.
三、 一二三原则
  to begin with, then, furthermore, finally(强烈推荐)    

       to start with, next, in addition, finally(强烈推荐)
  first and foremost, besides, last but not least(强烈推荐)  

    most important of all, moreover, finally
  on the one hand, on the other hand(适用于两点的情况)  

    for one thing, for another thing(适用于两点的情况)
四、 短语优先原则
  写作时,尤其是在考试时,如果使用短语,有两个好处:其一、用短语会使文章增加亮点,如果老师们看到你的文章太简单,看不到一个自己不认识的短语,必然会看你低一等。相反,如果发现亮点精彩的短语,那么你的文章定会得高分了。其二、关键时刻思维短路,只有凑字数,怎么办?用短语是一个办法!

比如:I cannot bear it.   可以用短语表达:I cannot put up with it.   

I want it.         可以用短语表达:I am looking forward to it.   

五、 多实少虚原则
  这就要求一定要多用实词,少用虚词。

比如我们说一个很好的时候,不应该之说nice这样空洞的词,应该使用一些诸如generous, humorous, interesting, smart, gentle, warm-hearted, hospital 之类的形象词。

再比如:走出房间,general的词是:walk out of the room   

但是小偷走出房间应该说:slip out of the room
  小姐走出房间应该说:sail out of the room   

小孩走出房间应该说:dance out of the room
  老人走出房间应该说:stagger out of the room   

六、 多变句式原则
  1)加法(串联)
  最保险的写长句的方法就是这些,可以在任何句子之间加and, 但最好是前后的句子又先后关系或者并列关系。

比如说:   I enjor music and he is fond of playing guitar.   

如果是二者并列的,我们可以用一个超级句式:   Not only the fur coat is soft, but it is also warm.
  其它的短语可以用:   besides, furthermore, likewise, moreover
  2)转折(拐弯抹角)
  批评某人缺点的时候,我们总习惯先拐弯抹角说说他的优点,然后转入正题,再说缺点。
  The car was quite old, yet it was in excellent condition.   The coat was thin, but it was warm.
  更多的短语:   despite that, still, however, nevertheless, in spite of, despite, notwithstanding
  3)因果(so
  The snow began to fall, so we went home.
  更多短语:   then, therefore, consequently, accordingly, hence, as a result, for this reason, so that
  4)失衡句(头重脚轻,或者头轻脚重)
  其实就是主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句的变形。
  举例:This is what I can do.   Whether he can go with us or not is not sure.
  同样主语、宾语、表语可以改成如下的复杂成分:   When to go, Why he goes away…
  5)附加(多此一举)
  就是定语从句和同位语从句或者是插入语。
  The man whom you met yesterday is a friend of mine.   

I don’t enjoy that book you are reading.
  Mr liu, our oral English teacher, is easy-going.
  同位语--要解释的东西删除后不影响整个句子的构成;定语从句借用之前的关键词并且用其重新组成一个句子插入其中,但是whom or that 关键词必须要紧跟在先行词之前。
  6)排比(排山倒海句)
  Whether your tastes are modern or traditional, sophisticated or simple, there is plenty in London for you.
  Nowadays, energy can be obtained through various sources such as oil, coal, natural gas, solar heat, the wind and ocean tides.
  We have got to study hard, to enlarge our scope of knowledge, to realize our potentials and to pay for our life. (气势恢宏)
 七、 挑战极限原则
  采用独立主格。比如:
  The weather being fine, a large number of people went to climb the Western Hills.
  Africa is the second largest continent, its size being about three times that of China.
 

文章主体段落三大杀手锏
一、举实例
  思维短路,举实例!提出一个观点,举实例!提出一个方案,举实例!而且者也是我们揭示一个观点最好的方式,任何情况下,只要我们无法继续文章,不管三七二十一,尽管举例子!
  In order to attract more customers, advertisers have adopted every possible stimulative factor in making ads, such as sound, light, colours, cartoon films and human performance. For instance, to advertise a certain food, advertisers will ask an actor or actress to sit at a table and devour the seemingly delicious food while they fime him or her.
  更多句型:
  To take … as an example, One example is…, Another example is…, for example
二、做比较
  方法:写完一个要点,比较与之相似的;又写完一个要点,再比较与之相反的;
  世界上没有同样的指纹,没有相同的树叶,文章亦同,只有通过比较,你才会发现二者的相同点(through comparison)和不同点(through contrast)。下面是一些短语:
  相似的比较:
  in comparison, likewise, similarly, in the same manner
  相反的比较:
  on the other hand, conversely, whereas, while, instead, nevertheless, in contrast, on the contrary, compared with …, …
三、换言之
  没话说了,可以换一句话再说,让你的文章在多一些字,或者文邹邹地说,是让读者更充分的理解你的观点。
  实际就是重复重复再重复!下面的句子实际上就三个字 I love you!
  I am enthusiastic about you. That is to say, I love you.
  I am wild about you. In other words, I have fallen in love with you.
  或者上面我们举过的例子:
  I cannot bear it.
  可以用短语表达:I cannot put up with it.
  因此可以这样说:I cannot bear it. That is to say, I cannot put up with it or I am fed up with it.
  更多短语:
  in more difficult language, in simpler words, put it more simply

 

     
 

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